Developed by education expert Edgar Dale and modified by a research centre called the National Training Laboratory Institute, the learning pyramid is a teaching theory.
Many modern teachers use the learning pyramid to understand how the learning process works, while others prefer to integrate more recent research. As educational psychologists continue to determine how people learn today, you can go through the learning pyramid to determine certain strategies for the class.
In this article, we define a learning pyramid, list its components, and provide tips for teachers on using it in the classroom.
What is the Learning Pyramid?
Wikipedia defines the Learning Pyramid as a group of popular learning models and representations relating to different degrees of retention induced from various types of learning.
It is also known as "the learning cone," "the cone of learning," "the cone of retention," "the pyramid of learning," or "the pyramid of retention.") The Learning Pyramid's representation is generally via percentages and discrete layers within a "pyramid of learning." It is generally divided into 10, 20, 30, 50, and 90 percent.
Simply put, the Learning Pyramid is a theoretical educational model in that few teaching methods help students remember information more than others. To better understand and represent the amount of information that students can remember, the learning pyramid assigns each approach a statistical value of 100. It assumes that learning through active engagement tends to be more effective than passive methods, such as reading or listening to a text.
For the visual presentation, this pedagogical model uses a triangular diagram. The diagram places each learning method in sequential order in its most depictions, from the least efficient methods with low percentages at the top of the triangle to the most dynamic approaches at the "lower" levels. Some models distinguish active and passive approaches with different colors or arrows to provide a more detailed analysis.
Several studies show that varying study methods and materials improve your retention and recall of information and enhance your learning experience. The model suggests that most students recall only about 10% of what they read in textbooks but retain almost 90% of what they learn by teaching others. It also suggests that some study methods are more effective than others and that these various study methods lead to more in-depth learning and longer-term retention.
What are the components of the Learning Pyramid?
According to the learning pyramid, "lecture" is one of the most inefficient ways to learn and store information. It is a passive form of learning in which you sit down and listen to the information your teacher gives you. Trying to gain information and understanding only at conferences is not the most effective way to learn. However, auditory learners tend to find the courses more challenging and educational than students who have non-auditory learning styles. Presentations are more effective when students arrive prepared, actively participate in class discussions, and take good grades.
Another element that is generally regarded as more efficient is reading. The learning pyramid sees it as less effective in acquiring and retaining information. However, reading textbooks is likely to be more effective for visual learners than for students with non-visual learning styles. Be that as it may, reading textbooks is a necessary (and mandatory) learning method in most academic contexts. Several textbook reading strategies can greatly enhance your ability to remember what you read in your textbook.
The learning pyramid suggests that audio-visual learning methods only result in 20% retention of information. The audio-visual learning method may include various learning and teaching tools, including videos, sound, images, and graphics. However, as media and computing technology evolves, various new forms of audio-visual education lead to more effective learning and information retention. The efficiency of audio-visual learning and study methods is enhanced when combined with other more active forms of study.
The demonstration usually requires the teacher to provide students with a learning task they can observe. In the structure of the learning pyramid, the demonstration is the first of seven study methods that involve active learning. The demonstration gives students less ambiguity than passive study methods and leads to fewer misconceptions and a better understanding. The demonstration can be studied efficiently, especially when ambiguous or unclear information.
Discussion, or "group discussion," a form of cooperative learning, is an active study method that can lead to more retention of the information and material studied and more academic success. Unlike individualistic or competitive approaches to learning and studying, it relies on students interacting and studying material with other students and instructors. Group discussion or discussion is a cooperative learning method that involves interaction and study of material with other students and instructors.
Discussion groups are designed to encourage student reflection and increase participation and commitment. It can easily take place within a classroom setting.
Practice (by) doing
Practice by doing is a form of "Discover Learning" and is one of the most effective learnings and study methods. This methodology study encourages students to take what they learn and put it into practice – thereby promoting deeper understanding and moving information from short-term to long-term memory. In addition, practice makes the material more personal and meaningful for students. Practice by doing also leads to a deeper understanding of the material, increased retention, and better recall.
As previously mentioned, the key to mastering a subject is to teach it to others. If you can accurately and correctly teach one subject to others, you will have a better command of concepts and higher retention and recall. The learning pyramid model allows students to retain almost 90 percent of what they can teach others. The most common form of teaching other people is peer mentoring. However, the best place to teach other people is in a study group. One of the key activities that should take place within an influential study group is peer education.
It allows each group member to take advantage of the opportunity to teach the other members the lessons to study.
Is The Learning Pyramid Important?
For decades, there has been criticism of The Learning Pyramid as a methodology from some areas of research and education. The main objection from these critics is that the research and data behind the original 1960's NTL concept have now been lost and are not available for analysis, undermining the methodology's credibility.
Many criticize the Learning Pyramid for using percentages as a measurement tool of effectiveness; too prescriptive and arbitrary. Also, they find it the model does not recognize that individuals respond differently to learning methods. For example, some may gain more and be less passive than others from a lecture. It is also suggested that it fails to identify context – some subjects lend themselves more naturally to particular forms of learning.
However, there broadly remains support for The Learning Pyramid as a useful structure for designing educational content and helping individuals understand how to get the most value out of their learning. Even critics acknowledge there are strengths and truths to the concept – in particular, its recognition of different forms of learning, and that active learning will, in most cases, greatly enhance understanding and knowledge retention, albeit not necessarily in rigid percentage terms.
How to use the in-class learning pyramid?
In terms of teaching, the learning pyramid has many facets to guide and support teachers in classroom activities and practices. You may use the model in the following ways:
Include audio-visual elements at a conference.
Using a video tutorial, infographic, or podcast episode to supplement lesson plans in a session may be helpful, as incorporating an active learning element may increase the number of students who recall information. In addition, it can appeal to students who have different learning preferences.
Let students make concept maps.
When teaching a new concept, ask them to create a visual representation of the information they read. Let them use circles and lines to make connections between plot points or concepts, depending on the type of text.
Give a lecture in advance of the demonstration.
Explain a lecture's basic concept and steps before presenting the information to the students. This may enhance this information through demonstration, allowing students to create new connections.
Assign practice sheets.
To help students apply new concepts, you can assign questions to answer or equations to resolve on a worksheet. Consider using multiple questions, including multiple choices, true or false, and crosswords.
Offer peer mentoring sessions.
A peer-to-peer teaching methodology may be useful to set up a formal club for students who benefit from peer tutoring, as this learning approach can encourage students to study effectively beforehand. For more effective learning, think about forming a student club that will retain more information through these sessions and asks them to teach other students.
Have classroom discussions.
Develop activities that promote student participation. For example, a Socratic seminar usually involves high school students sitting in a circle at their desks, then dealing with a series of general group questions.